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【全面总结】Broker应知应会知识点(中英对照)

精艇网  2015-9-7  来源:吾爱航运网
字号:T|T

目 录

1、Key Points主要知识点

2、The ship船舶相关

3、Geography地理

4、IACS 船级社

5、The parties involved当事人

6、Markets市场

7、Contracts and Documentation合同和文件

8、Negotiation谈判

9、Finance and insurance融资与保险

10、Valuations估值

11、Legal aspects of sale and purchase买卖过程中法律

正文:

1、Key Points主要知识点:

     Understand the key clauses in sale and purchase contracts and the issues associated with them.

     理解买卖合同以及相关关键条款

     Know the role of the shipbroker, the buyer,and the seller and their specific duties and responsibilities

     了解broker、买方、卖方各自的义务与责任

     Assess what can go wrong in each phase of the sale and purchase process to avoid disputes

     评估交易过程中各阶段可能出现的问题并尽量避免产生争议

     Study what can go wrong during a sale and purchase process and how it can be resolved

     学习交易过程中可能出现的问题了解如何解决

     Take away practical solutions and remedies to issues around ship sale and purchase that you can use in your existing or your next transactions

     针对目前或下阶段交易过程中出现的问题,能够提出可行的方案和救济手段

     Be able to form a watertight contract that will protect your business and your bottom line

     能够制定一份无懈可击的合同,切实保障自己的利益和底线

2、The ship船舶相关

     Thoroughly understand that the knowledge of ship design and construction required of a Sale & Purchase broker is that which is necessary to communicate effectively with a potential buyer. Think in terms of the sort of information that a successful car dealer or real estate agent need in their respective trades.

     精通作为broker应了解的船舶设计、建造相关知识,与潜在买家能进行有效的沟通。参考成功汽车以及房产销售在各自工作中应会的技巧及知识储备

     Thoroughly understand the fundamental differences between dry bulk cargo ships, general-purpose ships, liners (container, break-bulk and Ro-Ro) and tankers, including Ore/Oil and Ore/Bulk/Oil carriers. (Students are expected to be able produce fairly detailed sketches).

     精通各种船型之间的基本区别,干散货、多用途、班轮(集装箱、散装船以及滚装船)以及油船,包括矿/油船,矿/散货/油船(学生应能描绘相当程度细节)

     Understand that Tankers sub-divide into several categories including carriers for crude-oil, petroleum products, chemicals, liquid gases, vegetable oils etc.

     理解油轮的分类,包括原油船、汽油产品、化学品、液化气、以及植物油

     Be aware of size ranges of bulk-carriers including Capesize, Panamax, Handy-size.

     了解散货船按大小分类,包括海岬型、巴拿马型、灵便型

     Understand the purpose also basic design and construction features of decks, holds, hatches, derricks, winches cranes and other cargo handling gear. Be aware of ballasting and ballast systems.

     理解以下基本的船舶设备原理:甲板、货舱、舱盖、吊杆、克令吊、以及其他起货设备。了解压载系统及工作原理

     Understand the terminology of measuring ships including:

     理解以下船舶术语

     Displacement TEU lane metres 排水量\集装箱数\车道长

     LOA 总长

     LBP 垂线间长

     GT 总吨

     Moulded Depth 型深

     NT 净吨

     Draft 吃水

     Bale & Grain Cube 谷物容积

     Air draft 净空高

     Understand other dimensions used in ships including freeboard, draft, moulded depth, length overall, length between perpendiculars, beam extreme breadth.

     理解其他船舶主尺度术语,比如干舷、持股是关于、型深、总长、垂线间长、型宽、最大宽度

     Thoroughly understand the importance of displacement (especially light displacement) tonnage in ship sales for demolition.

     精通排水量(尤其空船排水量)在船舶销售以及拆解之中的重要性

     Understand what information is contained in General Arrangement Plans.

     理解总图之中体现的信息

     Thoroughly understand the basic characteristics of a ship’s propulsion machinery also other machinery and equipment that may feature in ship sale negotiations.

     精通船舶销售谈判过程中可能会涉及的有关轮机设备的基本参数,比如主机或者其他设备

     Understand the trends in ship development especially those which are affected by legislation and/or international convention (e.g. double skinned tankers).

     理解船舶未来发展趋势,尤其是重大生效规范或国际会议(比如双壳)

     Be aware of perceptions of future developments which may affect a purchaser’s thinking.

     了解未来有哪些发展方向会影响买家的决策

3、Geography地理

     Understand the location of the main areas of current shipbuilding;

     理解目前主要造船厂所在区域

     be aware of the size, capabilities and specialisation of the major yards.

    了解主要船厂的规模、造船能力以及专长

     Understand the location of the major buyers of tonnage for demolition.

     理解主要拆船买家的位置以及吨位

     Understand cargoes, trade routes and meteorological phenomena to the extent that these may influence the types and sizes of ships to be employed.

     理解货物、贸易路线以及气象等影响营运船舶船型以及大小的因素

     Thoroughly understand the need for a ship to be registered.

     精通船舶需要注册的手续

     Thoroughly understand the differences between registration in the owner’s own country (flag state) and registration in another country (offshore registration).

     精通船舶注册在船东所在国(船旗国)与注册在其他国家(离岸注册)的区别

     Understand the differences between flags of convenience and “open registers” operated by traditional maritime nations.

     理解方便旗注册与传统海运国家的“开放登记”之间的区别

     Understand the advantages and disadvantages of each form of registration.

     理解每种注册方式的优缺点

     Be aware of the advantages both real and hoped-for arising out of the introduction of tonnage tax.

     了解引入吨位税后对现在以及将来利润有哪些影响

     Be aware of the manner in which an S & P broker may become involved in changing a ship’s registration

     了解作为二手船船东有可能会参与的更换船舶登记注册手续

4、IACS 船级社

     Thoroughly understand the need for a ship to be classified and what classification entails.

     精通船舶应入级,以及什么是船级社

     Understand the role and function of classification societies and the names of the principal societies.

     理解船级社的主要职能及角色,知道主要船级社名字

     Understand what membership of the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) entails.

     理解IACS几大船级社

     Be aware of the considerable number of real and quasi-classification societies which do not qualify for membership of IACS.

     了解IACS内大型船级社名字以及不在IACS成员但是相当的船级社

     Be aware of the manner in which an S & P broker may become involved in changing a ship’s classification.

     了解作为二手船船东可能参与的换级流程

5、The parties involved当事人

     Understand how an S & P broker must be able to differentiate among the different types of shipowners – the Buyers and the Sellers - including individual entrepreneurial owners; limited companies large and small; divisions in conglomerates; investment groups which may purchase for immediate bareboat charter to an operator; shipping pools. Understand how their attitude in S & P negotiations may differ.

     理解二手船broker应能区分各种不同形式船东:买方/卖方。包括私人公司船东,大型/小型有限公司,大型集团的分支机构,投资集团(可能购买后立即光租给营运商),航运基金。理解他们对broker的不同态度。

     Understand the role and function of other major players in the S & P market including other brokers; ship breakers; charterers (for example a ship may be sold with an existing charter commitment); bankers and other financiers.

     理解二手船买卖市场上的主要参与者的角色以及功能,包括其他broker,拆船厂,承租人(比如船舶可能在现有租家委托下出售),银行以及其他融资方

     Understand the role and function of those who may become involved at the time of completion of a sale including lawyers; notaries; consuls; registrars; classification society representatives.

     Be aware of the structure of a typical S & P broker’s office and the importance of record-keeping.

     理解完成交易可能会涉及的其他各方的角色以及功能,比如:律师、公证员、领事、注册官、船级社代表。了解典型的二手船broker公司的结构以及保持记录的重要性

6、Markets市场

     Thoroughly understand the differences and interrelationships between the markets for newbuildings, second hand tonnage and demolition. Be aware of how the information each requires differs in emphasis.

     完全理解新造船、二手船以及拆船吨位的异同。了解不同业务需要信息的侧重点。

     Understand what factors influence the state (firmness or weakness) of the S & P Market generally and what factors influence each of these markets particularly.

     理解何种因素会影响二手船市场的整体走势(繁荣或萧条),以及何种因素会影响某一特定市场的走势

     Understand what factors influence the chartering market and how these direct impinge on the second hand market and indirectly on the demolition market and how current views on the future of world economy affect the newbuilding market.

     理解何种因素影响租船市场以及直接冲击二手船市场并间接冲击拆船市场,目前主流观点是如何看待全球经济影响新造船市场的?

     Understand the influence on markets of external factors including natural catastrophes; political crises; environmental disasters; aid programmes.

     理解影响市场的外部因素包括以下:自然灾难,政治危机,环境灾难,救助计划等。

     Be aware of how the markets for tramps, liners and tankers and how different countries may react to different factors.

     了解不同市场(煤炭、班轮以及油轮)和不同国家对各种因素的不同反应

     Understand the skill required to prepare and to interpret market reports including both statistical and written reports.

     懂得准备市场报告的技巧,包括统计和写作

7、Contracts and Documentation合同和文件

     Thoroughly understand the basic anatomy of an agreement to sell a ship and the essential differences depending upon whether it is for a newbuilding, a second hand ship or a ship destined for scrap.

     完全理解新造船、二手船和拆船不同交易所使用的合同文本的基本结构和主要不同

     Understand the existence of all the standard Memorandums of Agreement in current use.

     理解目前使用的标准MOA

     Thoroughly understand the most widely used namely Norwegian Saleform.

     完全理解广泛使用的NSF格式文本

     Understand that there are two Norwegian Saleforms in current use, the 1987 version and the 1993 version. NB. Because many practitioners prefer the tried and trusted to the new and improved, students should be able to compare the two versions.

     理解目前有2种NSF格式在使用,分别是1987和1993版本,因部分从业者偏好使用新的改进版,学生应能比较此二种格式的区别

     Understand the intention of each clause in a saleform, be aware of the Clause numbers of the more crucial clauses.

     理解销售格式之中每一条款的意图,了解关键条款的行数(大致位置)

     Understand the practicalities of the inspection and dry-docking clauses and when these are customarily carried out

     理解验船和进坞条款的可操作性以及通常何时执行此条款

     Understand how to compile additional clauses when these are desirable to supplement or replace those in the printed form.

     理解如何编制附加协议,有时需要在原有版本基础上对条款进行补充或替换

     Understand the role and function of all other documentation which buyers and sellers normally must produce at the time of completing the sale and the legal transfer of the ship. Including safety and other compliance certificates.

     理解买卖双方在完成交易以及移交船舶所有权之时正常应准备的文件。比如涉及安全以及其他相关的证书

     Be aware of the issuing authorities for these documents. Be aware of representatives of other parties whose presence or electronic contact may be required at time of handover.

     了解上述文件的发证机关。了解交接时可能有其他方代表现场见证或者其他可能需要的联系方式

8、Negotiation谈判

     Thoroughly understand the basics of firm offer and counter offer in the negotiating process and the manner in which it is customary for the two parties each having their respective brokers.

     完全理解谈判过程中实盘以及还盘的基础知识,以及通常情况下双方各有自己的broker

     Understand the importance of time limits in offers.

     理解发盘之中时间限制的重要性

     Understand how to draft an opening offer encompassing all the principal’s requirements including the wording of any clauses not covered by the printed form and which may have to be specifically compiled.

     理解如何起草一份发盘,内容包括主要要求以及对打印格式内未包括的条款进行措辞整理。

     Understand how the negotiating process leads to a conclusion necessitating a recapitulation together with a completion agenda.

     理解如何主导谈判并知道如何达成必要的带日程的概要整理文件

     Be aware of the various “subjects” particularly “subject inspection” which have to be lifted before the sale is finally complete

     了解各种“取决于”尤其是“取决于检验”必须在交易之前完成。

     Understand the manner in which a ship’s particulars are usually compiled when placing a ship on the market for sale.

     理解将一艘船投入市场时如何编制船舶主要参数

     Thoroughly understand that such primary information is given on a “believed to be correct but not guaranteed” basis.

     完全理解主要船舶参数提供基于“相信正确但不保证准确”

     Be aware of the etiquette and ethics customary among S & P brokers including the commitment to clients when certain information has been requested and given.

     了解要求提供以及收到船舶信息时基本的礼节以及职业道德,比如对客户的承诺等。

9、Finance and insurance融资与保险

     Thoroughly understand the different ways a Buyer may raise the funds to finance the purchase.

     完全理解买方为购买船舶筹措资金的不同渠道

     Understand the sources of such funds and the type of information such financiers will require.

     理解融资渠道来源以及各渠道所需的信息

     Thoroughly understand the role and function of a mortgage when used as security for a loan to finance the purchase.

     完全理解抵押担保融资的角色以及功能

     Understand the procedures of leasing and bareboat chartering as methods of acquiring tonnage.

     理解租赁流程以及光租获得吨位的方式

     Be aware of the effect of interest rates, foreign currency and currency fluctuation on the raising of finance and servicing the loan.

     了解融资贷款过程中利率、汇率以及货币波动对成本的影响

     Understand the manner in which the Seller’s and Buyer’s insurable risk changes as the negotiations progress and the importance of ensuring cover is obtained at the correct time.

     理解谈判过程中买卖双方保险风险改变的方式,以及在正确的时间获得保险范围的重要性。

     Be aware of the providers of insurance including the role of a P & I Club.

     了解保险公司的角色,比如P&i CLUB

10、Valuations估值

     Thoroughly understand the duties of a valuer in ship sale and purchase

     完全理解船舶买卖过程中估价师的责任

     Be aware of the reasons for and types of bodies requiring valuations.

     了解需要估值的原因和主体形式

     Understand the legal liabilities upon and protection needed by valuers.

     理解评估机构所需要的法律责任以及保护

     Understand how a valuation is presented with particular attention to appropriate caveats.

     理解如何按照注意事项呈交估值报告

     Understand the information upon which a valuation is based and the method of assessing a value.

     理解估值依据以及评估方式等相关信息

     Be aware that it does not involve physically surveying the actual vessel.

     了解估值不包括对船进行实地考擦

11、Legal aspects of sale and purchase买卖过程中法律

     Thoroughly understand the legal position of the broker in S & P and the relationship with the principal.

     完全理解二手船交易过程中broker的法律地位和各方之间的关系

     Understand the principle of the broker acting under the specific authority of the principal and the liability likely to arise if this authority is not acted upon meticulously.

     理解broker在合同双方特别授权下行动的责任以及没有精心行动可能会产生的责任。

     Understand what is involved in breach of warranty of authority both with and without negligence.

     理解什么是疏忽或者没有疏忽情况下违反管理当局的保证

     Understand what is implied with the words “free of all encumbrances and maritime liens”.

     理解“没有抵押权或海事债务”这句话的意思

     Understand the importance of a valid Notice of Readiness and of the ship arriving within her cancelling date.

     理解有效的准备就绪通知和船舶到港以及销约期的重要性

     Be aware of the principal areas of dispute including alleged misrepresentation in the description of the vessel, condition of the vessel on delivery, quantity of bunkers on delivery, alleged absence of items of equipment on delivery.

     了解主要的争论范围,比如错误描述船舶参数、交船时船舶状态、交接时剩余燃油,声称交接时缺少部分设备等等。

     Be aware that the Buyer is not obliged to give any reason for declining a ship on inspection.

     了解买方可在检验后无任何理由拒绝船舶

     Understand the brokers right to a commission and the manner of ensuring this right is protected.

     理解broker获取佣金的权力以及确保此权力的方式是受保护的

     Be aware of the effect of international conventions and legislation on existing and new ships.

     了解现行生效针对现有船舶以及新造船的新规范以及法规

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